2. Second course oral ibuprofen in Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure
A small study of 100 preterm infants < 34 weeks gestation, mean birth weight 1350gms, who had a clinically significant PDA (by echocardiography) after a course of ibuprofen were given a second course to assess its efficacy, side-effects and cost.
47.5% of infants closed their PDAs following their second course with improvement in respiratory function and oxygenation. One patient had an intraventricular hemorrhage and the increase in cost was negligible.
5. Growth hormone treatment in Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
A study of 36 prepubertal CF children, < 14 years old had their growth, lean body mass (LBM), pulmonary function and exercise tolerance measured following daily recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment for 12 months, followed by a further 6 month observation period and compared to a comparable control group. Height, weight, LBM, forced vital capacity and FEV1 all improved significantly compared to the control group, however exercise tolerance was unchanged.Treatment of prepubertal CF children with rhGH enhances growth and pulmonary function with an acceptable safety profile.
6. Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) as a measure of airway inflammation/modeling in asthmatic children
Significant EBT differences before and after a standardized exercise test in asthmatic children indicates that increasing EBT correlates with a decreasing FEV1.
14. Burn care has greatly improved survival following a severe burn injury. A large retrospective study of 952 severely burned (>30% total body surface area-TBSA) comparably managed pediatric patients was undertaken to identify the burn size most associated with increasing morbidity and mortality.
In a modern burn care setting, a burn size of 60% TBSA is the critical threshold above which morbidity and mortality increases.
17. Gene polymorphism and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
It appears that at least seratonergic and noradrenergic neurons (probably with other brain stem neuronal systems) play a role in SIDS. The X-chromosomal monoamine oxide A (MAOA) gene is functionally important in both systems.
A study of 156 white SIDS cases (and matched controls) in which the expression of a functional MAOA promotor length polymorphism was examined, indicated a significant relationship between MAOA genotype, particularly in male infants who died between 46-154 days of age. This report is the first X-chromosomal locus found associated with SIDS.
22. Investigation of urinary tract infections (UTI) in young (<36 months) children
Recent guidelines have stressed the need for fewer invasive procedures to diagnose UTI in young children. In a retrospective review of 406 children <36 months of age at their first UTI, all underwent initial renal ultrasonography (RUS). Children with an abnormal RUS and those with recurrences had a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan.
23. Perceptions of Masculinity and HIV risk
Young black men who have sex with men age 15 to 22 (YBMSM) have the highest rate of HIV infection in the USA, 5 times higher than comparable white men. The rate of unprotected anal intercourse however occurs equally across men of other racial/ethnic backgrounds.
An analysis of semi-structured interviews of YBMSM identifies factors that influence their partner selection, risk-assessment and decision making with regard to condom usage. Partner perceived masculinity appears to play a significant role in increasing HIV risk in these individuals.
24. Pertussis and retinal hemorrhages
In a small study, 35 children aged 15 days to 2 years with pertussis infection underwent opthomological examination within 72 hours of admission. If retinal hemorrhages were detected further investigation was to be undertaken.No retinal hemorrhages were found in any child diagnosed with pertussis.
25. Diabetic children treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions (CSII)
Charts of 67 diabetic children aged 1-16 years treated with CSII over a 4 year period were analyzed retrospectively. Significant improvement in measured HbA1c levels, insulin doses, with a trend towards reduced BMI was found.