Hyperviscosity of the newborn is the slowing and blockage of blood flow that results when there are too many red blood cells in an infant's blood.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Hyperviscosity can occur when the percentage of red blood cells (RBCs) in the infant's blood,, called the "hematocrit," is greater than 65%. This may result from various conditions that develop before birth, such as:
- Birth defects
- Delay in clamping the umbilical cord
- Diabetes in the baby's birth mother
- Inherited diseases
- Not enough oxygen reaching body tissues (hypoxia)
- Twin-twin transfusion syndrome, which occurs when blood moves from one twin to the other.
The extra RBCs can block the flow of blood in the smallest blood vessels. This may lead to tissue death from lack of oxygen. This blocked blood flow can affect all organs, including the kidneys, lungs, and brain.
Symptoms may include:
- Extreme sleepiness
- Feeding problems
- Very ruddy (red) skin color
Signs and tests
There may be signs of breathing problems, kidney failure, and newborn jaundice.
If the baby has symptoms of hyperviscosity, a blood test to count the number of red blood cells will be done. This test is called a hematocrit.
Other tests may include:
- Blood gases to check oxygen level in the blood
- Blood sugar (glucose) to check for low blood sugar
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), a substance that forms when protein breaks down
- Creatinine, a substance produced by muscles that can build up in the blood if the kidneys aren't working properly
The baby will be monitored for complications of hyperviscosity. If needed, an exchange transfusion will be done to lower the amount of red blood cells that are moving through the baby's blood vessels.
Other treatment may include increasing body fluids.
The outlook is good for infants with mild hyperviscosity and those who receive treatment for severe hyperviscosity.
Some children may have mild changes in neurological development. Parents who believe their child may show any signs of developmental delay should contact their health care provider.
Complications may include:
- Death of intestinal tissue (necrotizing enterocolitis)
- Decreased fine motor control
- Kidney failure