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Genetic

Hurler syndrome

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Definition

Hurler syndrome is a rare, inherited disease of metabolism in which a person cannot break down long chains of sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (formerly called mucopolysaccharides).

Hurler syndrome belongs to a group of diseases called mucopolysaccharidoses, or MPS.

See also:

  • MPS II (Hunter syndrome)
  • MPS IV (Morquio syndrome)
  • MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome)
  • MPS I S (Scheie syndrome)

Alternative Names

Alpha-L-iduronate deficiency; Mucopolysaccharidosis type I; MPS I H

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Persons with Hurler syndrome do not make a substance called lysosomal alpha-L-iduronidase. This substance, called an enzyme, helps break down long chains of sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (formerly called mucopolysaccharides). These molecules are found throughout the body, often in mucus and in fluid around the joints.

Without the enzyme, glycosaminoglycans build up and damage organs, including the heart. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.

Hurler syndrome is inherited, which means that your parents must pass the disease on to you. Both parents need to pass down the faulty gene in order for you to develop Hurler syndrome.

Hurler syndrome is a type of mucopolysaccharidosis called MPS I. Hurler syndrome is the most severe type. It is categorized as MPS I H.

The other subtypes of MPS I are:

  • MPS I H-S (Hurler-Scheie syndrome)
  • MPS I S (Scheie syndrome)

Symptoms

Symptoms of Hurler syndrome most often appear between ages 3 and 8. Infants with severe Hurler syndrome appear normal at birth. Facial symptoms may become more noticeable during the first 2 years of life.

Symptoms include:

  • Abnormal bones in the spine
  • Claw hand
  • Cloudy corneas
  • Deafness
  • Halted growth
  • Heart value problems
  • Joint disease, including stiffness
  • Mental retardation that gets worse over time
  • Thick, coarse facial features with low nasal bridge

Signs and tests

  • EKG
  • Genetic testing for the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene
  • Urine tests for extra mucopolysaccharides
  • X-ray of the spine

Treatment

Enzyme replacement therapy adds a working form of the missing enzyme to the body.

Bone marrow transplant has been used in several patients with this condition. The treatment has had mixed results.

Other treatments depend on the organs that are affected.

Support Groups

For more information and support, contact one of the following organizations:

  • The National MPS Society -- www.mpssociety.org
  • Canadian Society for MPS and Related Diseases -- www.mpssociety.ca
  • Society for MPS Diseases -- www.mpssociety.co.uk

Expectations (prognosis)

Hurler syndrome is a disease with a poor outlook. Children with this disease develop nervous system problems, and can die young.

Calling your health care provider

Call your health care provider if:

  • You have a family history of Hurler syndrome and are considering having children
  • Your child begins to show symptoms of Hurler syndrome

Prevention

Experts recommend genetic counseling and testing for couples with a family history of Hurler syndrome who are considering having children.

References

Staba SL, Escolar ML, Poe M, et al. Cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors in patients with Hurler's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 6;350(19):1960-9.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Mucolipidoses Fact Sheet. Office of Communications and Public Liaison. Bethesda, MD; Publication No. 03-5115. February 13, 2007.

Wraith JE. Mucopolysaccharidoses and oligosaccharidoses. In: Fernandes J, Saudubray J-m, van den Berghe G, Walter JH, eds. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer;2006:chap 39.

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