E. coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.
Traveler's diarrhea - E. coli; Food poisoning - E. coli; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
E. coli is a type of bacteria that normally lives in the intestines of humans and animals without causing any problems. However, certain types (or strains) of E. coli can cause food poisoning. One strain (E. coli O157:H7) can cause a severe case of food poisoning.
Bacteria may get into your food in different ways:
- Meat or poultry may come into contact with normal bacteria from the intestines of an animal while it is being processed
- Water used during growing or shipping may contain animal or human waste
- Unsafe food handling or preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes
Food poisoning often occurs from eating or drinking:
- Any food prepared by someone who did not wash their hands properly
- Any food prepared using unclean cooking utensils, cutting boards, or other tools
- Dairy products or food containing mayonnaise (such as coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too long
- Frozen or refrigerated foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated properly
- Raw fish or oysters
- Raw fruits or vegetables that have not been washed well
- Raw vegetable or fruit juices and dairy products
- Undercooked meats or eggs
- Water from a well or stream, or city or town water that has not been treated
Although not common, E. coli can be spread from one person to another. This may happen when someone does not wash his or her hands after a bowel movement and then touches other objects or someone else's hands.
Symptoms occur when E. coli bacteria enter the intestine. The time between being infected and developing symptoms is usually 24 - 72 hours.
Diarrhea that is sudden, severe, and often bloody is the most common symptom.
Other symptoms may include:
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach cramping
- Vomiting (rare)
Symptoms of a rare but severe E. coli infection include:
- Bruises that happen easily
- Pale skin
- Red or bloody urine
- Reduced amount of urine
Signs and tests
Your health care provider will perform a physical exam. A stool culture can be done to check for disease-causing E.coli.
You will usually recover from the most common types of E. coli infection within a couple of days. The goal of treatment is to make you feel better and avoid dehydration.
Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you or your child comfortable. You may need to:
- Manage the diarrhea
- Control nausea and vomiting
- Get plenty of rest
If you have diarrhea or vomiting and cannot drink or keep enough fluids in your body, you may need fluids given through a vein (IV). You will need to go to your health care provider's office or the emergency room.
If you take diuretics ("water pills"), talk to your health care provider. You may need to stop taking the diuretic while you have diarrhea. Never stop or change medications without first talking to your health care provider.
You can buy medicines at the drugstore that can help stop or slow diarrhea. Do not use these medicines without talking to your health care provider if you have bloody diarrhea or a fever. Do not give these medicines to children.
You usually get better in a few days, without treatment. Some uncommon types of E. coli can cause severe anemia or even kidney failure.
Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:
- You are unable to keep down fluids
- Your diarrhea does not get better in 5 days (2 days for an infant or child), or it gets worse
- Your child has been vomiting for more than 12 hours (in a newborn under 3 months, call as soon as vomiting or diarrhea begins)
- You have abdominal pain that does not go away after a bowel movement
- You have a fever above 101°F, or your child has a fever above 100.4°F along with the diarrhea
- You have recently traveled to a foreign country and developed diarrhea
- You see blood or pus in your stool
- You develop symptoms of dehydration, such as not peeing or dry diapers, thirst, dizziness, or light-headedness
- You develop new symptoms
See: Preventing food poisoning
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Sodha SV, Griffin PM, Hughes JM. Foodborne disease. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, esd. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 2009;chap 99.
Craig SA, Zich DK. Gastroenteritis. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 92.