Agranulocytosis means a failure of the bone marrow to make enough white blood cells (neutrophils). Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Agranulocytosis may be caused by:
- Autoimmune disorders
- Bone marrow diseases such as myelodysplasia or large granular lymphocyte leukemia
- Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation
- Medications such as rituximab, penicillin, captopril, ranitidine, cimetidine, methimazole, and propylthiouracil
- Preparation for bone marrow transplant
Agranulocytosis results in a person not having enough of a specific type of white blood cells, called neutrophils or granulocytes. A low neutrophil count (neutropenia) may also occur when white blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be produced.
Persons with this condition are more likely to have fevers and infections.
Signs and tests
See: Blood differential test
Andersohn F, Konzen C, Garbe E. Systematic review: agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapy drugs. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:657-665.
Berliner N. Leukopenia and leukocytosis. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 170.